The short indirect object pronouns are:
||short indirect object
|тој or тоа
Note that the feminine form, ѝ, has an accent mark above it. This helps distinguish it from the conjunction и, meaning "and," in writing. However, the two words are pronounced the same.
In certain cases, these short words are translated as "my, your, his/its, her, our, your (plural), their); for example:
- Ова е мајка ми. This is my mother.
- Брат му се вика Петар. His brother's name is Peter.
- Таа ѝ е сестра. She is her sister.
In the last example, the pronoun is placed before the family member (сестра), whereas in the previous two examples, it follows the family member (мајка, брат). Consider the following examples:
- Ова е баба ни. This is our grandmother.
- Оваа жена ни е баба. This woman is our grandmother.
- Таа ни е баба. She is our grandmother.
In the first example, the sentence begins with a demonstrative pronoun (ова, this), which is not specific - it could refer to anything close to the speaker. The other two examples begin with a subject that is specific - a demonstrative adjective (оваа, this one (feminine), describing жена) and a pronoun (таа, she), both of which specify the family member's gender. When the sentence begins with a non-specific subject (like the demonstrative pronouns ова, она, оr тoa when it is not refering to a specific "it"), the indirect object pronoun will follow the family member. In these cases, the meaning in English is very similar to the possessive - my, your, his, her, our, your (plural), their. When the sentence begins with a subject specified in some way (for example, gender), the indirect object pronoun could be either immediately before the verb or after the family member. In these cases, the indirect object pronoun has a more relational than possessive meaning, i.e. "She to us is a grandmother" or "She to her is a sister" as in the above examples. There are many more examples, which you will encounter in this unit, in which the indirect object pronouns are translated as "to me, to you, to him, to her, to us, and to them."
But there are also certain examples, where these pronouns anot translated at all. For example:
- Тој ѝ дојде на гости. He (to her, to her house) came for a visit.
- Како си ми? How are you?