To review, the short indirect object pronouns are:
||short indirect object
|тој or тоа
Note that the feminine form, ѝ, has an accent mark above it. This helps distinguish it from the conjunction и, meaning "and," in writing. However, the two words are pronounced the same.
Unlike the previous tutorial, when these short words were most often translated as "my, your, his/its, her, our, your (plural), their), in this tutorial they most often carry the meaning of "I, you, he/it, she, you (plural), they," as in the examples:
- Што ти е? What's the matter with you?
- Ми се допаѓа палтото. I like the jacket.
- Му се јаде. He feels like eating/He's hungry.
- Им треба ли конец? Do they need string/yarn?
In this tutorial, these short words were also sometimes translated as "me, you, him/it, her, us, you, them," when the person they represent is the indirect object, as in the examples:
- Ми пречи кога луѓето пушат. It bothers me when people smoke.
- Дајте ни кафe. Give (plural or polite/formal) us coffee.
- Донеси ѝ појадок. Bring (singular, informal) her breakfast.
Lastly, in one usage, the short words were translated with the possessive (as in the previous tutorial), as in the examples:
- Најомилено јадење ми е мусака. My favorite food is mousaka.
- Кој пијалок Ви е омилен? What drink is your (plural, polite/formal) favorite?
Turning to a discussion of where in the sentence to place these short forms, the examples show that they are found at the beginning of the sentence (such as in He's hungry or It bothers me) or second:
- after a question/question phrase (such as What or What drink but not the question marker ли),
- after a noun/noun phrase (such as Favorite food (to me))
- after an imperative (such as Give or Bring)
Some of the needs and feelings can be expressed in two ways. Using the indirect object pronouns, as you saw in this tutorial; and using subject pronouns. Compare the following examples:
|With indirect object pronouns
||With subject pronouns OR
implied subject pronouns
|Ми се јаде.
I feel like eating.
Јас сум гладен/гладна.
|Ми се пие вода.
I feel like drinking water.
|Јас сум жеден/жедна.
|Страв ми е.
|Јас се плашам.
For a more complete list of these expressions, purchase the children's book: Needs and Feelings.