The long and short direct object pronouns are:
|long direct object
|short direct object
|тој or тоа
The long forms of the direct object pronouns are used in two general categories:
- in all of the uses where you could have a short direct object pronoun, either along side the pronoun or without it (only in short answers). When you add the long direct object pronoun, you are putting an emphasis on the person referred to in the sentence; for example when you are comparing one with another, or if you didn't hear the pronoun and want it repeated for emphasis, or if you want to answer a question by just using the pronoun. For example:
- Ме чекаат мене, а не тебе. They're waiting for me and not you. (emphasis)
- А: Кого го возиш? Who are you driving?
Б: Неа. Her. (short answer)
- A: Ќе ја видиш утре. You'll see her tomorrow.
Б: Кого? Who?
А: Неа. Her. (repeat for emphasis)
- This includes situations where you would normally have the long indirect object pronoun, but it has been replaced with the prepositions на "to" or за "for" plus the direct object pronoun. Note that the short pronoun doesn't change - it remains the indirect object pronoun. For example:
- Нему му зборувам. = На него му зборувам. I'm talking to him.
- Кому му веруваш? = На кого му веруваш? Whom do you believe?
- Ќе ви донесам и вам. = Ќе ви донесам и за вас. I will bring (it/some) for you as well.
- after any preposition. For example:
- Дојди кај мене! Come to me! OR Come to my house!
- Стојам до неа. I'm standing next to her.
- Мислам на нив. I'm thinking about them.
The order of the short and long indirect pronouns when they occur together is predictable. The long pronoun goes either directly in front of the short pronoun (separable only by да, ќе, не, adverb or adjective) or at the end of the sentence. For example:
- Јас ги гледам нив, но тие мене не ме гледаат. I see them but they don't see me.
- Нас ќе нè возат, а не вас. They'll drive us and not you.
The order of the short and long forms of the indirect and direct object pronouns is also predictable. In a sentence that has both the short and long forms of both the indirect and direct object pronouns, the following permutations are possible, with no change in meaning but slight change in emphasis:
- Ви ги даваме нив вам. We are giving them to you.
(short indirect, short direct, verb, long direct, long indirect)
- Вам ви ги даваме нив. To you we are giving them.
(long indirect, short indirect, short direct, verb, long direct)
- Нив вам ви ги даваме. Them we are giving to you.
(long direct, long indirect, short indirect, short direct, verb)
Note that in each of these examples, вам could be replaced with на вас. Examples that contain both the long and short forms of both the indirect and the direct object pronouns are not encountered very frequently. More often, you will encounter one or both of the short forms, or one of the long forms together with one or both of the short forms.