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4.3.5. Short Direct and Indirect Object Pronouns: Describing Pain 2

The short direct and indirect object pronouns are:

subject short direct object short indirect object
јас мe ми
ти тe ти
тој or тоа го му
таа ја ѝ
ние нè ни
вие ве ви
тие ги им

Note that the "us" form, нè, has an accent mark above the "e." This helps distinguish it from the negation не, meaning "no, not," in writing. However, the two words are pronounced the same. Similarly, the accented ѝ is pronounced the same as the unaccented и. The accent mark helps distinguish it from the conjunction "and" in writing.

In certain cases, these short words are translated as the possessive "my, your, his/its, her, our, your (plural), their); for example:

  • Ме боли глава. My head hurts.
  • Ја болат рамења. Her shoulders hurt.

But in the Macedonian sentence, the possessives, мој/моја/мое/мои, твој/твоја/твое/твои, etc. are not used. Instead, the direct object pronouns, meaning "to me, to you, to him, to her, to us, and to them" are used, so the word-for-word translation of these sentences would be "To me hurts head" and "To her hurt shoulders." 

Because the body part that hurts is the subject of the sentence, the verb has to agree with it in number. If a singular body part hurts, such as the head, stomach, or neck, the verb is third person singular (боли). If a plural body part hurts, such as fingers, teeth, eyes, ears, arms, or legs, the verb is third person plural (болат).

Note that the direct object pronoun comes first in these (declarative) sentences. When asking a question, however, the question word (interrogative) comes first and the direct object pronoun comes second. For example:

  • Што те боли? What hurts (you)?
  • Каде те боли? Where does it hurt (you)?
  • Дали те боли грло? Does your throat hurt?

When talking about a broken or sprained body part, the condition (broken or sprained) is an adjective, which has to match in gender and number with the body part it is describing: скршен зглоб "broken wrist/any joint", скршена рака "broken hand or arm", скршено колено "broken knee", скршени заби "broken teeth". In sentence order, either the body part or the adjective describing it comes first. The object pronoun (note that this is the indirect object pronoun, not the direct one that was used when describing that something hurts) has to come second. For example:

  • Скршена ти е ногата. Your leg/foot is broken.
  • Ногата ти е скршена. Your leg/foot is broken.

There is no difference in translation into English. The difference between the two sentences is one of conversation flow. The new information in the sentence tends to come last, so the first example is pointing out it's your leg/foot that is broken (as opposed to another body part), whereas the second example is pointing out that the leg/foot is broken (as opposed to sprained, bruised or another condition). With questions, the indirect object pronoun remains second. For example:

  • Што ти е скршено? Ногата. What's broken (to you)? The leg/foot.
  • Што ти е со ногата? Скршена ми е. What's with your leg? It's broken (to me).

What next?

    • Want a fun way to practice? Try the short direct object pronouns wordsearch (click here). When you're done, don't forget to come back to the Learn portion of the website.
    • Do you want to deepen your knowledge of the vocabulary for parts of the body? Click here to learn the vocabulary and play a game.
    • Think you got it? Move on to see how you can use the direct and indirect object pronouns together (click here).


Click on the Macedonian word to hear its pronunciation.
  • ах - exclamation - ah, oh
  • боли - verb - hurt
  • глава - noun - head
  • гледа - verb - see, look
  • глужд - noun - ankle
  • грб - noun - back
  • грло - noun - throat
  • да - affirmation - yes
  • заб - noun - tooth
  • зглоб - noun - wrist or any joint in the body
  • нога - noun - leg or foot
  • око - noun - eye
  • прст - noun - finger
  • рака - noun - arm or hand
  • раме - noun - shoulder
  • скршен - adjective - broken
  • стомак - noun - stomach
  • уво - noun - ear
  • шинат - adjective - sprained
  • што - interrogative - what